**WF-10-15 Waterfall Turbine**

The WF-10-15 can accommodate a wide range of flows, and is designed for the following conditions:

- Drops of between 6 and 16 feet

- Average flows above 5 MGD

- Can accommodate angled outfalls

Flows exceeding product specifications will simply flow around the turbine and will have no impact on plant operations. You also have the option of installing multiple turbines to maximize power generation.

For plants with average flows below 5 MGD, Hydrovolts is working on a smaller turbine solution. Please contact us at info@hydrovolts.com or view the FAQ to learn more.

**C-12 Canal Turbine**

The C-12 is specifically designed for artificial channels with the following conditions:

- Widths greater than 13 feet

- Depths greater than 6 feet

- Water velocities between 1.5 and 3.0 meters per second

- Low turbulence

- Easy access

The C-12 turbine harvests hydrokinetic energy – literally, the energy in moving water. Water velocity changes depending on location and water volume. Water is faster in the mid-point of the canal than on the sides, and greater water volume can often increase speed.

There are three methods to determine water velocity, listed in order of accuracy:

1. Use a velocimeter or flow meter to take a 30 second reading of the water speed. Ideal measurements are taken at the midpoint of the canal, approximately 1-2 feet beneath the surface.

2. Calculate the water velocity using canal dimensions and flow data. This method underestimates water velocity in the midpoint of the canal where water is fastest and the turbine would likely be located.

a) Estimate the area of a canal cross-section. (Example: a trapezoidal canal with a bottom width of 20 feet, top width of 30 feet and average water depth of 8 feet will have a cross-section area of 200 square feet. The formula is ½(T+B)/D).

b) Measure the flow in cfs (cubic feet per second). For example, a moderately sized canal as described above might have a flow of 1,000 cfs. As the flow can vary throughout the water season, it is good to take several indicative points to get a sense of the different speeds – the turbine will not produce significant power at speeds below 1.5 m/s.

c) Divide your flow measurements by the canal cross-section to estimate the velocity. So, using the same example canal as above, you would divide 1,000 cfs by the 200 square foot cross-section to get 5.0 feet per second.

d) Convert your velocity to the metric system. There are 3.28 feet per meter. Using the same example, 5.0/3.28 = 1.52 meters per second. This is within the appropriate velocity range for a C-12 turbine.

3. Approximate the velocity by tracking the speed of an object in the water. 1.5 m/s is generally the speed of a brisk walk; 2.0 m/s is considered a slow jog.

If you have a shallower canal with high enough velocity (between 3-6 feet deep; max velocity of 3.0 m/s), Hydrovolts is working on a smaller turbine solution. Please contact us at info@hydrovolts.com or view the FAQ to learn more.